Ivrinel: Avon meno od i had hen... Amdiron: Avo no dem. Dadwenathogir na Imladris, a ledhathon na Eryn Lasgalen ned lû thent Siron: I 'wend vîn breniatha anuir
Ivrinel: I don't want to go from this place... Amdiron: Don't be sad. You will all return to Rivendell, and I will travel to the Wood of Greenleaves in a short time Siron: Our friendship will endure forever
û/ú- = no, not, impossible to do
Important note: ú- causes soft mutation on whatever follows it or is attached to it. . Whether you use soft mutation on the word following the standalone word û is entirely down to your preference as we have no evidence suggesting it should be one way or the other.
The word û means both 'no' or 'not' by itself. Lilthathol? û = Do you want to dance? No. Te û nórui sír = It is not sunny today.
The prefix form of û is ú-. When ú- is attached to a noun adjective or adverb it gives the opposite meaning of a word: Nad = Something, but únad = Nothing Beren = Bold, brave, úveren = Cowardly Land = Wide, but úland = Not wide, narrow
Please note the difference between û + word, e.g. Te û vrui = It is not noisy, and attaching it to a word which gives you the negated form; Te ú-vrui = It is quiet
Attached to a verb, ú- gives the meaning of ‘impossible to do’, i.e. 'cannot, could not', or 'will not' depending on the tense, for example: Han ú-chedin = I cannot throw that Den ú-vreniannen = I couldn’t endure it Gin ú-genathon = I will not see you, I cannot see you (in the future)
Ava- = to refuse, don't
In imperative sentences only, the verb that follows Ava- is mutated with soft mutation.
The verb Ava- which means 'to refuse to do something' is usually followed by a second verb, much like auxiliary verbs in English. When issuing a command it can be used as either the separate word Avo or as the prefix Av- that attaches to the following verb. In all other cases the second verb takes the infinitive/gerund form and doesn't require mutation.
Attested example: Avgaro! or Avo garo! Don’t do it! (Car- = to do)
Further imperative examples: Avdolo! or Avo dolo! = Don't come! (Tol- = to come) Avdhadweno! or Avo dhadweno! = Don't return! (Dadwen- = to return) Avdhefo! or Avo dhefo! = Don't try! (Def- = to try)
Avo or Av-? Please click here for further information.
The only surviving forms of the verb Ava- are listed below.
I won't, I refuse
We won't, we refuse
Follow Avon or Avam with the infinitive/gerund form of a second verb, for example: Avon maded i aes han! = I refuse to eat that meat, I won't eat that meat! Avon den cared = I refuse to do it, I won't do it. (remember your object pronoun needs to go before the second verb) Avon teithad angin = I won't write to you Avam padrad ennas = We won't walk there Avam linnad hír = We won't sing today Avam toled na Imladris = We won't come to Rivendell
Pen- = to lack
Important note: Pen- (as both a prefix and a verb) causes soft mutation on the word that follows
As a prefix, Pen- means 'less, without', for example Pen-adar = Fatherless, or Pen-'ell = Joyless. When attached to a noun like this it refers to a complete impossibility.
As a verb, Pen- means 'to lack', and is used in Sindarin to say 'have not'. From the attested example Penim vast = We have no bread (we lack bread), we know that the object follows the verb and mutates with soft mutation.
Examples: Penin vann = I have no food, I lack food Pên vellyn = He has no friends, He lacks friends Penir nen = They have no water, They lack water Pennin chervess = I had no wife, I lacked a wife Penn degil = She had no pen, She lacked a pen Pennir vegyl = They had no swords, They lacked swords
Do not/Did not?
With the changes to ú- and the restrictive usage of Ava- how do we translate sentences like 'You don't want to go', 'He doesn't like it', 'She doesn't eat meat' or 'They didn't kill the orcs'?
Questions: Change the verb (or just use û) Onureg na Vree? Did you run/ride to Bree? û, padrannen = No, I walked Den gant? Did he catch it? û, dannant = No, it fell
Wanting to do something: Use Pen- and the infinitive of Aníra- I don't want to go = Penin anírad mened (I lack desire to go) He doesn't want fish = Pên anírad an lim (He lacks desire for fish) They don't want to fight = Penir anírad maethad (They lack desire to fight) We didn't want to see it = Pennim anírad den cened (We lacked desire to see it) She didn't want to trade to him = Penn anírad bangad anden (She lacked desire to trade to him)
X don't/doesn't/didn't Y: 'X is not a doer of Y' I don't eat meat = Ni û vador aes (I am not an eater of meat) [vador would be mador if you don't want to use soft mutation] They didn't kill the orcs = Ti û negnir yrch (They are not slayers of orcs) [negnir would be degnir] You don't like roses = Le û velor meril (You are not a lover of roses) [please note that this doesn't have the same double meaning as 'lover' in English as Sindarin has separate words for those such as Melethor]
The agental or 'doer' suffix is -or. You can add this to the end of any verb stem, just remember to take off the final A of A-stem verbs. For example: Teitha- 'to write', Teithor = Writer Mib- 'to kiss', Mibor = Kisser