Ivrinel: ú-aníron gwaed od i had hen... Amdiron: Avo no dem. Dadwenathogir na Imladris, a ledhathon na Eryn Lasgalen ned lû thent Siron: I 'wend vîn breniatha anuir
Ivrinel: I don't want to go from this place... Amdiron: Don't be sad. You will all return to Rivendell, and I will travel to the Wood of Greenleaves in a short time Siron: Our friendship will endure forever
You may see other people using a prefix Al-, a word Law 'no' or a verb La- 'don't. This is not taught here as I do not agree with the interpretation made from the evidence in Parma Eldalamberon #22. This lesson is based from Tolkien's earlier notes published in Parma Eldalamberon #17.
ú = no, not
Important note: ú causes soft mutation on whatever follows it or is attached to it
As you know by now, ú means both 'no' or 'not' by itself. When attached to a noun or adjective it gives the opposite meaning of a word, for example: Nad = Something, but únad = Nothing Beren = Bold, brave, úveren = Cowardly Land = Wide, but úland = Not wide, narrow
Attached to a verb, it gives the meaning of 'is not', 'did not', or 'will not' depending on the tense, for example: Gin ú-velon = I do not love you Gin ú-velannen = I did not love you Gin ú-velathon = I will not love you
You may have seen a different prefix, Al-, used for negation by other Neo-Sindarin scholars. My lessons use the notes published in Parma Eldalamberon #17 as their guide (titled "Definitive Linguistic notes") which includes this line written by Tolkien: "**Delete AL/LA "not." Quite unsuitable. AL, LA already have too much to do." Furthermore the usage of ú as the normal Sindarin negation is well attested, for example in Gilraen's Linnod in The Lord of the Rings: ú-chebin estel anim = I do not keep hope for myself. Where then does Al- come from? The more recently published Parma Eldalamberon #22 includes a note where Tolkien appears to change his mind entirely on ú, however it is my belief that past the discussion of Gilraen's Linnod the rest of these notes apply solely to Quenya and not Sindarin.
Ava- = to refuse
Important note: An imperative verb form that follows Ava- is mutated with soft mutation.
The verb Ava- which means 'to refuse to do something' is used with the imperative form of a second verb. When issuing a command, it can be used as either a separate word or as a prefix that attaches to the verb. Ava- has an irregular past tense which is covered in Lesson 19.
Command examples: Avdolo! or Avo dolo! = Don't come! Avdhadweno! or Avo dhadweno! = Don't return! Avdhefo! or Avo dhefo! = Don't try!
Present tense examples: Avon mado i vann han = I refuse to eat that food Ava teilio i 'annel = He refuses to play the harp Avar tolo na i mar nîn = They refuse to come to my house
Past tense examples: Avassen revio i lunt = I refused to sail the boat Avas teitho parf = She refused to write a book Avasser pedo anden = They refused to speak to him
Future tense examples: Avathon gwao ennas = I will refuse to go there Avatha liltho = She will refuse to dance Avathar maetho in yrch = They will refuse to fight the orcs
Pen- = to lack
Important note: Pen- (as both a prefix and a verb) cause soft mutation on the word that follows
As a prefix, Pen- means 'less, without', for example Pen-adar = Fatherless, or Pen-'ell = Joyless. When attached to a noun like this it refers to a complete impossibility.
As a verb, Pen- means 'to lack', and is used in Sindarin to say 'have not'. From the attested example Penim vast = We have no bread, we know that the object follows the verb and mutates with soft mutation.
Examples: Penin vann = I have no food, I lack food Pên vellyn = He has no friends, He lacks friends Penir nen = They have no water, They lack water Pennin chervess = I had no wife, I lacked a wife Penn degil = She had no pen, She lacked a pen Pennir vegyl = They had no swords, They lacked swords