Compared to English, the sentence structure of Sindarin can take some getting used to. If you already know another language like French or German however, you may find things like the positioning of adjectives much more familiar!
As you saw in Lesson 12, adjectives follow the noun they describe, mutate with soft mutation and agree with them in number. The adjectives have been marked in red. Examples: Orch um = An evil orc I aew galen = The green bird In eryd vyrn = The black mountains
An adverb's place in a sentence varies, depending on its function. The sentence structure matches that of English. If it is acting as a modifier on the verb, it will follow the verb and mutate with soft mutation. Adverbs have been marked in red. Attested examples: Edro hí = Open now Noro lim = Run swiftly
Further examples: Meno dhad = Go down
If the adverb is elsewhere in the sentence, it causes soft mutation on the word following. Attested example: Mae g'ovannen = Well met
Further examples: Sí vedin = Now I will eat Edregol vain = Especially beautiful
Although Mae g'ovannen indicates that the word following an adverb should mutate with soft mutation, we do have this example from the King's Letter of an adverb not causing mutation on the following word.
Sennui Panthael estathar aen = Instead he should be called 'Fullwise'
Perhaps in Gondorian Sindarin adverbs don't cause soft mutation?
Imperative As you should remember from Lesson 17, the imperative form is e.g. Isto! Know! or Mado! Eat! When using an imperative the verb comes first, followed by the object which mutates with soft mutation. Examples: Mado han! = Eat that! Carfo annin = Talk to me Isto i vellas in edhil! = Know the strength of the Elves! No aer i eneth lîn = Be holy thy name (May your name be holy)
Object pronouns The object of the sentence comes before the verb and is mutated with soft mutation. The object is marked in red. Examples: Len cenin = I see you Den medin = I eat it Gin melannen = I loved you Hen aw = He possessed this Nin dagrathol = You will battle me Ven covathar = They will meet us
Dative pronouns Dative pronouns follow a verb, and are placed at the end of a clause or sentence. The pronoun is marked in red. Examples: ú-chebin estel anim = I kept no hope for myself (Gilraen's Linnod) Annon Edhellen, edro hi ammen = Elvish gate, open now for us (Gandalf's gate spell) Guren bêd enni = My heart speaks to me
When a noun acts as the object of a sentence, it follows the verb, and does not mutate. Nouns have been marked in red. Examples: Teithathon parf = I will write a book Faron erais = I hunt deer Anírnem laboth = We wanted a rabbit
When a noun acts as the subject of a sentence, it usually comes before the verb, but it can follow it. Examples: Aragorn pent na in edhil = Aragorn spoke to the Elves Iaul hamp bo i ram = A cat sat on the wall Tôl acharn = Vengeance comes!