Ivrinel: ú-aníron gwaed od i had hen... Amdiron: Avo no dem. Dadwenathogir na Imladris, a ledhathon na Eryn Lasgalen ned lû thent Siron: I 'wend vîn breniatha anuir
Ivrinel: I don't want to go from this place... Amdiron: Don't be sad. You will all return to Rivendell, and I will travel to the Wood of Greenleaves in a short time Siron: Our friendship will endure forever
You may see other people using a prefix Al-, a word Law 'no' or a verb La- 'don't. This is not taught here as I do not agree with the interpretation made from the evidence in Parma Eldalamberon #22. This lesson is based from Tolkien's earlier notes published in Parma Eldalamberon #17.
ú = no, not
Important note: ú causes soft mutation on whatever follows it or is attached to it
As you know by now, ú means both 'no' or 'not' by itself. When attached to a noun or adjective it gives the opposite meaning of a word, for example: Nad = Something, but únad = Nothing Beren = Bold, brave, úveren = Cowardly Land = Wide, but úland = Not wide, narrow
Attached to a verb, it gives the meaning of 'is not', 'did not', or 'will not' depending on the tense, for example: Gin ú-velon = I do not love you Gin ú-velannen = I did not love you Gin ú-velathon = I will not love you
Ava- = to refuse
Important note: The verb that follows Ava- is mutated with soft mutation.
The verb Ava- which means 'to refuse to do something' is used with the imperative form of a second verb. When issuing a command, it can be used as either a separate word or as a prefix that attaches to the verb. Ava- has an irregular past tense which is covered in Lesson 19.
Command examples: Avdolo! or Avo dolo! = Don't come! Avatholo! or Avo atholo! = Don't return! Avdhefo! or Avo dhefo! = Don't try!
Present tense examples: Avon mado i vann han = I refuse to eat that food Ava teilio i 'annel = He refuses to play the harp Avar tolo na i mar nîn = They refuse to come to my house
Past tense examples: Avassen revio i lunt = I refused to sail the boat Avas teitho parf = She refused to write a book Avasser pedo anden = They refused to speak to him
Future tense examples: Avathon gwao ennas = I will refuse to go there Avatha liltho = She will refuse to dance Avathar maetho in yrch = They will refuse to fight the orcs
Pen- = to lack
Important note: Pen- (as both a prefix and a verb) cause soft mutation on the word that follows
As a prefix, Pen- means 'less, without', for example Pen-adar = Fatherless, or Pen-'ell = Joyless. When attached to a noun like this it refers to a complete impossibility.
As a verb, Pen- means 'to lack', and is used in Sindarin to say 'have not'. From the attested example Penim vast = We have no bread, we know that the object follows the verb and mutates with soft mutation.
Examples: Penin vann = I have no food, I lack food Pên vellyn = He has no friends, He lacks friends Penir nen = They have no water, They lack water Pennin chervess = I had no wife, I lacked a wife Penn degil = She had no pen, She lacked a pen Pennir vegyl = They had no swords, They lacked swords