Exercise 1 - That, that, or that is? (Lessons 15, 22, 24 and 27)
By now you've seen four different pronouns, all including the word 'that' (this lesson also partly applies to the multiple forms of 'this' incidentally, if you leave out the relative pronoun, but I'm using 'that' as the example), so I'm not going to be surprised if some of you have said to yourselves while learning 'hang on, am I using the right pronoun in this sentence?'
That is This is obviously the easiest one to pick out as being different, so let's look at a few more sentences in Sindarin using this pronoun: Sa parf = That is a book Sa bessenin = That is my wife (using the diminutive possessive suffix, as you don't own her!) Sa i aear = That is the sea
That (possessive) We only use the possessive to indicate ownership of an item like so: Aníron i iaul han = I want that cat Togo i 'wîn han an i nethail = Bring that wine for the guests Havol bo i cham han, ah hevithon sí = You sit on that chair, and I will sit here
That (relative) I started to write an explanation of grammatically, how this is used, but it ended up rather long, and I think, rather over complicated. In simple terms, it is used in a sentence or as part of a sentence (a clause), to describe a noun. Bear in mind that 'i' used as a relative pronoun can mean any of 'which, whom, whose, who, or that', but these examples are just using it to mean 'that'. I venn i velon = The man that I love I emm i gennin = The image that I saw I vant i mennin = The food that I ate
In spoken English, we would often leave the word 'that' out of these sentences, but we're writing correct Sindarin here!
That (object) An object pronoun quite simply, acts as the object of the sentence and comes before a verb (unless the verb is in the imperative form): Anno han anin = Give that to me Ach han seron! = But I like that! Han iston thand = I know that to be true
Now it's your turn...
Answers can be found by dragging and highlighting the blank space next to each sentence
Write the following in Sindarin: That is my pen Sa i degil nîn That is a black dog Sa hû vorn That is not your sword Sa ú i grist lîn/gîn. You could have also used m(v)agol or lang.
I fear that spirit Goston i faer han I will sail to that land Reviathon nad i nôr han (dôr is a nd word) She will look into that mirror Tiratha mi i genedril han
I kindled the fire that is burning Narthannen i naur i dhostad The bird that is singing in the tree I aew i linnad min orn/galadh The horse that he rode I roch i norn
It fell on that Dannant am/bo han She wanted that Han anírn He throws that to her Han hâd handen